The Ghavam family were rulers of Fars region in Qajar era. Naranjestan means garden of sour orange in Persian. Naranjestan e Ghavam (Ghavam’s House) is the name of a famous building located in Shiraz, Iran. This masterpiece is a good sample of Persian architecture was built between 1879 and 1886 AD. and was used as a court house, governmental meetings, department of Asia institute of Shiraz university and lately a Museum.
The building is well embellished by elegant mirrors, tile and wood works, good assemble of Iranian traditional houses. Along with stucco, symmetry method is well used in rooms from the floor to the ceiling which is covered with colorful and various beautiful designs and paintings were used in Qajar era, resembling the paintings of Victorian era in Europe.
Garden & yard are lovely with a Persian pond and water fountains in the middle and trees of orange, sour orange, date palms and flowers around the garden. In the adjacent, there is Zinat-ol-Molk house, the house of Ghavam’s sister. These tow houses are connected to each other with an old corridor.
Zinat-ol-Molk house is also a museum of wax statues of Iranian historical and famous people and icons.
There, you can wear beautiful traditional dresses and Take memorable pictures.
Nearby these Persian traditional houses there are many sightseeing spots such as Shah e Cheragh Shrine, Vakil bazaar, many religious mosques and another Persian masterpiece architecture, Nasir-Al-Molk mosque (Pink Mosque).
You can visit these tow Iranian traditional and historical houses and other touristic destinations around, through our cultural tours.
Persian art with colorful glasses and mirror pieces in jewel like design, used in Ghavam’s house.
Hafezieh is the most popular historic-cultural site in Iran
Hafezieh is one of the most popular poets in Iran, as well as the most well-known Iranian poet in the world.Every year, millions of tourists visit the mausoleum of this famous Iranian poet.Based on the latest census of 20 historical sites, The Hafezia mausoleum in Shiraz is known as the most popular place.
The tomb of Khajeh Hafiz Shirazi is located in the city of Shiraz, near the Koran Gate.The Hafezieh Hall of Shiraz builts during the Zandieh era.This mausoleum is about 2 hectares.
Hafez’s Tomb is the most magnificent historical monument of Iran during the New Year Eve.
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The most historic monuments of Iran
If Iran’s history is divided into three part, prehistoric periods, ancient Iran and Islamic period.The temples of Choghazenbil, Persepolis and Jame Mosque of Isfahan are the best of the architecture of this era.
Dur Untash or Chogha Zanbil an ancient Elamite temple in the Khuzestan province south of Iran. It is one of the few ziggurats outside of Mesopotamia. It is about 30 km south-east of Susa and 80 km north of Ahvaz.In 1979, this structure was the first Iranian monument to be listed on the UNESCO World Heritage List.
The ancient city of D?r Untash or the historic site of Choghaznbil in the 13th century BC was built by “Ontas Nepirisha”, the king of Ilam.
The “ziggurat” is an Akkadian name used in Mesopotamia and Ilam for temporal temples.
The Chogha Zanbil ziggurat has a square shape with a length of about 105 meters.This building is made entirely of bricks and mud and sometimes baked bricks.The temple was built on seven floors, which now has 5 floors.The monuments were decorated with glazed bricks, gypsum, and ornaments of faience and glass.
Thousands of baked bricks bearing inscriptions with Elamite cuneiform characters were hand-engraved.Glazed terracotta statues such as bulls and winged griffins guarded the entrances to the ziggurat.
Orientalists consider this building the first religious building in Iran.
Takht-e-Jamshid or Persepolis the capital of Achaemenid Empire(550–330 BC) is located 80 Km from Shiraz city in Fars province.It exemplifies the Achaemenid style of architecture. UNESCO declared the ruins of Persepolis a World Heritage Site in 1979.In 518 BCE, the construction of Persepolis began as the new capital of the Achaemenids in Pars.The founder of Persepolis was great Darius, after whom his son Xerxes and his grandson, Ardeshir I, expanded to expand it.Historians believe that Alexander the Great, Macedonian commander in the 330 BC, invaded Iran and set fire to Persepolis.The Sassanid kings also have inscriptions on Persepolis at Tacher Palace.After the entrance of Islam to Iran, they also considered this place worthy of a thousand pillars or forty minars, and linked them with characters such as Suleiman Nabi and Jamshid.
Another historical monument related to the Achaemenid is Naghsh-e-Rostam.These Achaemenid temples are located 6 km from Persepolis.The Naghsh-e-Rostam includes the shrines of the kingdoms like Darius the Great / Xerxes / Ardeshir I and Darius II.
Jameh Mosque of Isfahan
This mosque is one of the most important and oldest religious buildings in Iran.The Mosque of Isfahan is a reflection of Byzantine and classical art in the form of a traditional Islamic building.This mosque is a complete collection of Iranian architecture from the early Islamic centuries to the Safavid era.This mosque is a collection of the best of Iranian architecture that includes the most beautiful tile, the most beautiful Minbar and the most magnificent altar.The mosque has 4 Ivans and 8 entrances, each of them has been constructed in different periods of history.The four porch of the mosque identifies the method of Iranian mosques, which has become popular in other mosques after its construction.The entrances around the mosque indicate the extensive connection of the mosque with the old urban fabric.
It is one of the oldest mosques still standing in Iran, and it was built in the architectural style of four-iwan, placing four doors face to face. An iwan is an open vaulted room. The qibla iwan on the south side of the mosque was vaulted with muqarnas in the 13th century.
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Cyrus II, who was later known as Cyrus the Great, is the founder of Achaemenian dynasty, creator of Persian Empire and the father of a nation called Iran. He was appointed as governor at the Southern part of Iran by Medes who rules from Zagros Mountains at the Northwestern and Western of Iranian plateau. He was also the king of an area known as Anshan for eight years. It was a territory at central Iran.
Famous Reliefs attributed to Cyrus the Great in Pasargadae
Two Major Accomplishments of Cyrus the Great
The reputation of Cyrus the Great is due to two major accomplished tasks he had brought to reality:
He changed the small country of Persia to a powerful empire in a vast territory. No other government had reached this level of authority in the world till then.
His ethical values had made him a well-behaved emperor with humble policies and favorable method by which he treated the conquered nations.
The world was dominated by brutal arrogant rulers who didn’t care about their nations’ rights. In fact, they oppressed everyone with sheer rigidness to put awe in their hearts. Cyrus changed all such mannerism.
When the final years of Medes’ domination was accompanied by oppressing people and treating them unfairly, the level of injustice was so high and suppression so severe that Median people had no choice but to wait for someone to save them from their brutal ruler. Cyrus turned to be this savior character. When he came to power, the new situation couldn’t corrupt him and make another monster out of him. Instead, he won lots of hearts and gained many nations’ respect for his mannerism. Cyrus united Medes with Persians.
The tomb of Cyrus the Great at Pasargadae
The Policies of Cyrus the Great
He maily focused on bringing peace, security, understanding, respect for others’ opinions and justice to his empire. He deeply influenced the civilization at the world of his time with positive impacts. The century in which he established Achaemenian Empire became the golden era of the world history and the century of creating arts and cultures. Subsequently, he brought about the acceleration in evolution of human societies and the development in ethical values, civilizations and human rights.
Cyrus the Great is well-known for his policy of tolerance and respect. When Cyrus defeated Croesus, the last king of Lydia, he ordered him to be saved, not killed and made him an advisor for his empire. He conquered Babylonia without a fight. He respected hand-made gods of all conquered nations despite of the fact that he believed in an unseen God. He went further and even helped the followers of other religions to rebuild their temples and take back their gods to their worshipping places. Historians and the Old Testament has recorded the way he treated captivated Jews forever.
Ruins of the residential palace of Cyrus at Pasargadae
Cyrus allowed the nations under Persian Empire to keep their religions, traditions, dress code, language, etc. He didn’t force the ideas, rituals and beliefs of Persians to the rest of the world. However, today we see that there are lots of powerful influences of Persian culture outside the present boundaries of Iran in a vast area.
The mighty rulers before him used to build minarets out of people’s heads and created heaps of corpses to demonstrate their power to the subject nations. They burned the people alive in fire, gouged their eyes, cut their tongues and boasted of the number of young girls and women imprisoned and taken away by their brutal soldiers. On the contrary, he didn’t carry out bloodshed, plunder, brutality, etc to prove his power. He established a government that tried hard to found unity and peaceful coexistence among nations from India to the Mediterranean Sea. To win people’s support, he used a different policy: He supported their rights, promoted justice and worked for their prosperity.
Ruins of the fortification at Tal-e-Takht at Pasargadae
The Legacy of Cyrus the Great
After the death of Cyrus the Great, Pasargadae, his capital city, wasn’t the capital anymore. Yet, it kept its significance among the succeeding Achaemenian kings. They held their coronation ceremonies there first and paid their respects to him as the founder of the dynasty. Then, they went to Persepolis to keep up with their festivities.
He built the first series of Achaemenian palaces in Pasargadae. He planned and made the first examples of Persian gardens at Pasargadae. He planned water channels and basins along the ducts there. We see the same style of parks and gardens made in Iran using the same plan.
Water Channels of Persian Gardens remained at Pasargadae
Without Cyrus the Great, there wouldn’t be any nation called Persia and later Iran. He united different ethnic groups via mutual respect and humanitarian supports under one flag. He taught everyone that tolerance and kindness is more powerful than any other weapons.
Even until 20th century, all dynasties in Iran tried to connect themselves somehow, through bloodline, etc, to Achaemenians and Persian Emperors. He’s the author and father of Iran. He’s the source of pride for everyone in Iran.
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Cyrus II, known as Cyrus the Great, was the founder of Achaemenid dynasty. His maternal grandfather was Astyages, the last king of the Medes, and his paternal grandfather was Achaemenes, the first founder of hereditary rule among the Persians.
Cyrus presented a new empire based on morality, justice, and decency to the world. Unlike the previous emperors, he treated the defeated with compassion, enemies with tolerance, and those with opposing beliefs and customs with liberality. His statement in Babylon, written on a clay cylinder, is the first draft of the Declaration of Human Rights.
The followings are three sites worth exploring to learn more about the rise and fall of Achaemenids. You can leave Shiraz for a one-day tour to visit these spectacular sites and then come back.
Pasargadae: This Is Where Achaemenids Rose to Power
Tomb of Cyrus at Pasargadae, Iran
It was the dynastic capital of Achaemenid Empire, the first great multicultural empire in western Asia. Today, it’s located near Shiraz in Fars province, south western Iran. It’s where Cyrus the Great conquered Astyages, the last Median king, in his last battle, and then founded the first Persian Empire in the same region and beyond. He founded Pasargadae and constructed palaces in memory of his victory. It was the rise of Achaemenids and Cyrus the Great was the author of Achaemenid dynasty. His tomb is also here in this city.
According to UNESCO, “palaces, gardens, and tomb of Cyrus are outstanding examples of the first phase of royal Achaemenid art and architecture, and exceptional testimonies of Persian civilization”.
A brief description of the site
The tomb of Cyrus has long been a focal point for visitors to Pasargadae and the palace area lay almost a kilometer north of it. This area included a palace to receive audiences and a whole series of adjacent gardens. They emerged to be the first Persian gardens. Unfortunately, all that has remained from Achaemenid era in this region are stone foundations and some wall socles.
In this site, the columned hall is the most common form of design. A notable architectural point about this hall was making use of stone-working techniques. It’s notable because all the previous columned halls in Iranian plateau were built in mud-brick walls and wooden columns.
Such an innovation facilitated the production of stone platforms, staircase, floors, and stone columns. Each one of these structures was to become a hallmark of architecture in Achaemenid era from about 540 BCE onward.
The gardens at Pasargadae would appear to be the first known occurrence of chaharbagh or fourfold garden, a specific articulation of space. It went on to become a distinctive characteristic of later garden designs in Iran for centuries.
Pasargadae kept its importance to Achaemenid emperors, but during the reign of the next kings, the capital moved to other cities.
Persepolis: The Glorious Times of Achaemenids
Gate of All Nations at Persepolis, Achaemenid Era
It’s the other dynastic center of Achaemenid kings located about 60 kilometers south of Pasargadae. After Cyrus the Great, Darius I, known as Darius the Great, succeeded in ruling the Persian Empire. He started the construction of Persepolis. It consists of ceremonial palaces, provisional residential palaces, a treasury, and a chain of fortification. It was built as a ceremonial palace complex mainly for celebrating Nowruz, the Persian New Year festival.
The gate to the site was from the south, through a staircase. To the right of this entrance, you can see a huge rectangular block bearing four cuneiform inscriptions in the name of Darius the Great: Two in Old Persian, one in Elamite, and the fourth in Babylonian. These scripts were clearly meant to inform visitors of the nature of Persepolis, the people who contributed to its construction as well as Darius’ beliefs and ideals.
The remarkable parts of the palace complex consist of:
The Gate of All Nations.
It was a four-columned square hall with three stone doorways. Two enormous winged bulls are carved at the inner side of eastern as well as western doorways, and the gates are decorated in the upper part with six cuneiform inscription sections.
The audience palace of Darius, The Apadana
The double-reversed stairways of this palace are the most splendid parts of Persepolis
The Palace of Darius known, the Tachara.
A charming structure which is the oldest palace of Persepolis. Here, you can find three different scripts carved in various historical periods: one in cuneiform from Achaemenid era, one in Pahlavi from Sassanid era, and one in modern Persian from Qajar era.
The Palace of Xerxes, the Hadish
It was the Xerxes’ temporary residence.
The Central Palace, the Tripylon
A small but lavishly ornamented structure located in the center of the complex. Three doorways and a couple of corridors and staircases were linked to the other palaces. It must be attributed to Xerxes and Artaxerxes I.
The second largest palace of Persepolis, The Hundred Column Hall
Its main feature was a square hall provided with ten rows of ten columns. It was an audience hall.
These structures were built by Darius the Great and his successors, Xerxes and Artaxerxes I, and maintained until 330 BCE, when they were looted and burnt by Alexander of Macedonia. Although today you can see only the remains of this complex, its magnificence can still impress you.
Darius the Great was a powerful and sage emperor in the ancient world. His territory was so extended that there were no such imperial expansion until then and long after.
Naqsh-e-Rostam, Mighty Emperors Have Rested Here
Naqsh-e Rostam, Achaemenids’ Necropolis near Shiraz, Iran
It’s one of the most spectacular ancient sites of Achaemenid era dating back to the times when the fall of Achaemenids was about to happen. It’s located almost 5 kilometers northwest of Persepolis, and consists of the colossal rock tombs of Persian kings dating back to the first millennium BC. Here you can see the best ancient rock reliefs in Iran from both the Achaemenid and Sassanid periods.
The rock-cut tombs of Achaemenid rulers and their families dating back to the 5th, 4th, and 3rd centuries BC have been engraved on the façade of a mountain. The tombs belong to Darius the Great, Xerxes I, Artaxerxes I, and Darius II. In addition to being a royal necropolis, Naqsh-e-Rostam was a major ceremonial center for the Sasanians until the 7th century AD.
I highly suggest you to put these three spectacular Achaemenid sites in your checklist for travelling to Iran. It takes just one day to visit them all and learn about the rise and fall of Achaemenids. I promise there will be so many amazing things that can cause your admiration.
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Everyone says you’ll be surprised by Iran (except for those who say, you’re nuts for going — and they’d probably be the most surprised of all). So I went in expecting to be surprised, but I still wasn’t prepared.
I was surprised by the red poppies bursting out all over the landscape, the snowcapped mountains where I’d expected desert, and the national commitment to mystical poetry and song. The most profound surprise of all was the genuine warmth of the people. From Tehran to Tabriz to the smallest village in the desert, people went out of their way to express appreciation at our visit. In Yazd, a restaurant owner went so far as to place an American flag on our table and blast “The Star-Spangled Banner” from the speakers, causing the other patrons to rise from their seats out of respect. Now, that’s surprising.
Below are a few of my favorite memories:
Our “Treasures of Persia” group examines the tomb of Nasser al-Din Shah at Golestan Palace in Tehran. The 19th-century Persian king was famous for his courtly visits to Europe, his large harem, and his assassination by a revolutionary in 1896.
The palace was a pleasant surprise — an equivalent place in Europe would be overrun with tourists and selfie sticks. Instead, it was magnificently quiet; you could hear the babble in the fountains and the chattering of parrots overhead.
I had my picture taken by a young Iranian couple who were also strolling around Golestan, being tourists themselves. They were thrilled to see a group of Americans touring their capital.
One thing that surprised me about Iranian cities was the fun public art. I expected to see lots of sober portraits of the Supreme Leaders, Khomeini and Khamenei, and yes, I did see those. But I didn’t expect colorful murals and whimsical sculptures, and I saw lots of those, too. I think the picture above is actually an advertisement, but it’s a nice reminder of how Iranian cities can be joyful places, not just somber ones.
On Iran’s rural border with Azerbaijan, set within a canyon and reachable only by a steep walk, the centuries-old St. Stephanos Church feels like it’s in a different world from cosmopolitan Tehran.
Iran’s Islamic architecture is dazzling, no surprise there. But there are other religions in Iran, and exploring sites sacred to Christianity, Zoroastrianism, and Judaism was a surprise highlight. Saint Stephanos Church is a long drive from the closest major city; perched just across the border with Azerbaijan, it holds court in a canyon of red rock that feels like one of the archives of time.
The Iranians that we met on the “Treasures of Persia” trip were always eager to have their picture taken with us. Same goes for this group of guys who ran into us at St. Stephanos Church.
We visited Saint Stephanos on a weekend, and it was busy. At each corner and courtyard of the church complex, we were approached by people who wanted to welcome us and chat with us — or take their photo with us. Kathie is pictured here with a group of gentlemen who wanted to immortalize the visit.
A spring fills this volcanic crater at Takht-e Suleiman, Iran – it’s easy to see why it was considered a sacred site to different civilizations throughout Iranian history.
At first I was a bit skeptical as we walked up to Takht-e Suleiman, a windy mountaintop UNESCO World Heritage Site. We’d driven hours through mountain landscapes to get there, and as you approach, you can’t see much except the crumbs of ruins. But the opaque, blue-green pool in the center of the site, formed in a volcanic crater, brought into focus how magnificent and spiritual it was. “One of the most sacred places in Iran,” our trip leader, Sylvie, said, and it was pretty easy to see why.
A group gathers around the National Guide at Takht-e Suleiman, a remote, ancient ruin and sacred site in northern Iran.
As with so many other places in northern Iran, we pretty much had the whole site of Takht-e Suleiman — all of its chambers, tunnels and temples — to ourselves to ponder and explore. Here, our national guide, Peyman, is explaining the Zoroastrian fire temple that once burned here.
The atmospheric ruins of Takht-e Suleiman, a sacred site in rural Iran.
There was just one other group of tourists visiting the ruins at Takht-e Suleiman that day, an older couple strolling with a young man. The woman asked me to take a photo with her. After the young man had taken the picture, the woman squeezed both of my hands in hers and kissed both of my cheeks. I don’t think anyone has ever been so happy to take a picture with me in any other country I’ve visited.
Military service is compulsory for young men in Iran. These two soldiers serve their time as guards at the crumbling Anahita temple, a pre-Islamic ruin in the town of Kangavar.
Military service is compulsory for most young men in Iran. These two soldiers serve their time as guards at the crumbling Anahita temple, a pre-Islamic ruin in the town of Kangavar, dedicated to the Zoroastrian goddess of water.
An Iranian woman in Kangavar offers warm bread to a traveler and GeoEx Trip Leader Sylvie Franquet.
An Iranian woman in Kangavar offered warm bread to some members of our group. At first we declined, trying to adhere to the Iranian custom of taarof, which governs etiquette, but as you can see, eventually the aroma of warm bread overcame us.
Lions, gryphons, and bulls are represented in the capitals of columns and other ruins at Persepolis.
Persepolis! Ancient cities haven’t always been my thing — in the Roman Forum I was preoccupied by the scrawny cats begging between the columns — but this site is magnificent from the very first approach. The city was a ceremonial capital for the Achaemenid kings, built on these tremendous stones that heave it toward the sky like an altar, and decorated with astonishing carvings and reliefs. It was more recently famous for being the site of the last Shah’s final big party in 1971, which lavishly celebrated 2,500 years of Persian civilization and provoked the outrage of then-exiled Khomeini.
This third-century relief at Naqsh-e Rustam, just a few miles from Persepolis, depicts the beginning of an empire: Ardashir, the first Sassanid king, is receiving a ring of kingship from the Zoroastrian deity Ahuramazda. The empire only ended four centuries later with the arrival of Islam in Iran.
The highway from Shiraz to Yazd follows historical trade routes, passing the same desert mountains as the camel caravans of previous centuries.
The highway from Shiraz to Yazd follows historic trade routes, passing the same desert mountains as the camel caravans of previous centuries.
This man has greeted travelers to the Towers in Silence, a Zoroastrian ruin on the outskirts of Yazd, for years – maybe decades. “Over the years I’ve come here, he’s gone through three different donkeys,” the guide explained, “but it’s always the same man.”
I’m posing here with a gentleman who has greeted travelers to the Towers in Silence, a Zoroastrian ruin on the outskirts of Yazd, for years — maybe decades. “Over the years I’ve come here, he’s gone through three different donkeys,” our guide explained, “but it’s always the same man.”
Kathie admires the tile work and calligraphy at the Friday Mosque in Yazd.
Only 20 columns support the ceiling of the Chehel Sotun, or Forty Column Palace. The other 20 are created by the reflection in the pool at the entrance to the palace.
Only 20 columns support the ceiling of the Forty-Column Palace. The other 20 are created by the reflection in the pool at the entrance to the palace.
Esfahan’s Forty-Column Palace has an impressive variety of mustaches depicted in the artwork on its walls. On the day we visited, they honored their mustache heritage with a make-your-own-Persian-‘stache station.
The Forty-Column Palace might have only had 20 columns. What it had in excess was mustaches depicted in its artwork and frescoes — an impressive variety. On the day our group visited, the palace happened to have a temporary exhibit dedicated to this mustache heritage, including a “make your own historical Persian mustache” station that we took full advantage of.
The exterior of the Imam Mosque – known as the Shah Mosque before the 1979 Islamic Revolution – features master calligraphy and tile-work. Here, it is covered in ornamental red bulbs to honor the birthday of the Hidden Imam, a Messianic leader believed by some Shia to be living in secrecy among the people.
The exterior of the Imam Mosque, in Esfahan, is covered in ornamental red bulbs to honor the birthday of the Hidden Imam, a Messianic leader believed by some Shia to be living in secrecy among the people.
Esfahan’s Sheikh Lotfollah Mosque was built in the 17th century as a private mosque for the women of the Shah’s family. The pious women were invisible while at prayer thanks to a long, curving hallway that twists away from the entrance doors.
Lots of people have written about the beauty of the Sheikh Lotfallah Mosque in Esfahan. I am happy to confirm that they were all correct. It’s a masterpiece. The mosque was built in the 17th century as a private mosque for the women of the Shah’s family. The pious women were invisible while at prayer thanks to a long, curving hallway that twists away from the entrance doors.
Abyaneh, a rural village in the Karkas mountains north of Esfahan, is beloved for its red-brick historical houses and its dried fruit.
As our trip wound to a close, we stopped in the village of Abyaneh, in the Karkas Mountains north of Esfahan. It’s beloved for its historic red-brick houses and its fruit leather (it tastes better than it sounds).
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